"AI" redirects here. For other uses, see Ai and Artificial intelligence (disambiguation).
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is an academic field of study which generally studies the goal of emulating human-like intelligence, though other variations of AI such as strong-AI and weak-AI are also studied. Major AI researchers and textbooks define this field as "the study and design of intelligent agents", where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines".
AI research is highly technical and specialized, and is deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other.Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. Some subfields focus on the solution of specific problems. Others focus on one of several possible approaches or on the use of a particular tool or towards the accomplishment of particular applications.
The birth of artificial intelligence 1943–1956
In the 1940s and 50s, a handful of scientists from a variety of fields (mathematics, psychology, engineering, economics and political science) began to discuss the possibility of creating an artificial brain. The field of artificial intelligence research was founded as an academic discipline in 1956.
1.Deduction, reasoning, problem solving2.Knowledge representation3.Planning4.Learning5.Natural language processing (communication)6.Perception7.Motion and manipulation8.Long-term goals9.Social intelligence
The implications of artificial intelligence have also been explored in fiction. Artificial Intelligences have appeared in many roles, including:
• supercomputer named "ARIIA" in the movie "Eagle_Eye"
• supercomputer named "VIKI" and a robot named "Sonny" in the movie "I,Robot"
• robot boy named David in the movie "A.I. (and there were other robots that had Artificial intelligence in this movie.)"
• real time battlefield analyst (Cortana in Halo: Combat Evolved, Halo 2, Halo 3, and Halo 4)
• servant (R2-D2 and C-3PO in Star Wars)
• law enforcer (K.I.T.T. "Knight Rider")
• comrade (Lt. Commander Data in Star Trek: The Next Generation)
• conqueror/overlord (The Matrix, Omnius)
• dictator (With Folded Hands),(Colossus: The Forbin Project (1970 Movie)).
• benevolent provider/de facto ruler (The Culture)
• supercomputer (The Red Queen in Resident Evil / "Gilium" in Outlaw Star / Golem XIV)
• an assassin (Terminator)
• sentient race (Battlestar Galactica/Transformers/Mass Effect)
• an extension to human abilities (Ghost in the Shell)
• the savior of the human race (R. Daneel Olivaw in Isaac Asimov's Robot series)
• the human race critic and philosopher (Golem XIV)
• lover (e.g. Her (film))
• host to real (usually deceased) human intelligence (e.g. Transcendence (2014 film))
• supercomputer that detects planned terrorist attacks (Person of Interest)
• spaceship vehicle that transports David through time (Flight of the Navigator)